Studied History at Wadham College, Oxford.
In 1983 was elected Rothman’s Fellow in Muslim History and subsequently Fellow in Islamic Studies at St Cross College. Oxford. In 1997 elected Prince of Wales Fellow at Magdalen College and Emeritus Fellow at St Cross College.
Since 1985 has served as the founder Director of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies, a Recognized Independent Centre of the University of Oxford.
Member of the Faculties of History and of Oriental Studies.
Muslim social and intellectual history (South-Asia in particular).
In recent years has been working on an Atlas of Muslim Social and Intellectual History (to be published by OUP, New York).
Editor, Journal of Islamic Studies, Oxford University Press (1990- )
Series Editor, Makers of Islamic Civilization, Oxford University Press (2004- )